Friday, April 20, 2012

Krannert School of Management

Nath Institute of Management Website:

Purdue University - Krannert School of Management ProfilePurdue University is an Indiana State University, founded in 1869, is the leader in the State University in the United States numerous. Like many other created in the latter half of the 19th century, American University, Purdue University is established according to the U.S. Congress in July 1862, the Morrill land grant. Under this Act, the federal government in the state as part of state-owned land gift of state government, the sale of some land by the state government, and then use the land after the sale of revenue as start-up fund of the State University. According to the bill to establish universities and colleges in 69 house; they are set up by land grant, so in the history of American education, they are also called "land grant colleges" (land-grant colleges).

Krannert School of Management is the most industrial enterprises welcome the talent base for industrial enterprises, it supplied a large number of very skillful and versatile MBA graduate each year to pay $ 13,000 (Indiana residents only pay $ 5700) to an MBA degree. In short, it is the best business school in the central and western regions. However, the current school downward trend in 1994 living in the top 20, 1996, under 25. The 1994 session of the participants said the Krannert School of Management teaching quality is uneven, the school vowed to solve this problem, but this problem to worsen in 1996. Freshness and effectiveness of the teaching facilities, the school received a low evaluation. In the top 50 business schools, Krannert School of Management in the second year elective course quality, the international business program, overall teaching areas have fallen into the countdown out of 10.

Although the employer is still the Krannert School of Management as a first-class school of operations and analytical skills, but their evaluation of the Krannert School of Management in 1996 worse than 1994. Krannert School of Management has also made a lot of effort, but I could not do anything. Krannert School of Management dean of students complain about the heavy academic burden, decided to ensure adequate class case, the compression required course for students to provide greater flexibility in elective select; the establishment of the quality of teaching evaluation form provide feedback as a teacher; the establishment of a student Freedom Forum; also revised admissions procedures, personally conducting interviews for every applicant.

After 1992, the Krannert School of Management MBA program in the curriculum to cultivate the softer management skills of a larger space. Krannert School of Management has also imposed a team group system, students are pre-assigned to each group of eight weeks of practice, in order to enhance their understanding of the collective work, develop their problem-solving skills. Familiar with the environment, students have to participate in the My-ers-Brigg test, to test the merits of their leadership. Krannert School of Management is now two semesters divided into four stages, each stage of the eight weeks, according to the allocation of time to arrange the course. Implementation of this program, the students weekly a organizationalbehavior and human resources management class, two communications; students can also choose an elective course in the first year and second year of the election at least nine elective.
In addition, students are no longer needed on the one with the compulsory elective to earn a degree. Nevertheless, many people choose a class for selected courses: accounting, finance, marketing, strategic management, operations management, information systems management and human resource management. In addition there are three new interdisciplinary options: production management, international management and integrated management. An MBA from the Krannert School of Management students get a degree is not, but industrial management, management, and humanresources management of these three areas, Master of Science degree. Reflects the great importance of the school training of technical and analytical capacity. 50% of the students have a natural science or engineering degree. 1996, 27 percent of graduates engaged in operations management. In addition, finance is also popular with students welcome 1996 graduates, 36% engaged in finance-related work.

Krannert School of Management, school life is bitter, and the applicant on this point must be fully prepared. Two years of study participants were happy when not much, but here graduating much business enterprises welcome. Every Friday no class, the students' day of discussion, students can participate in some of the experimental activities, outside of those who are often on Friday to school with your classmates discussion of a variety of hot issues such as technology, environment.
Krannert School of Management is another obvious aspect is that this is not some conservative university, the culture is pure and natural. Walking in the streets, strangers will say hello to you and you talk about the weather.

Krannert School of Management at the cost of living is not very high, students living off campus, a month to spend $ 400 you can rent a room of the building. But the location of the Krannert School of Management is not a very lively place. Krannert School of Management from the north side of Chicago and south of Indiana very far, and thus it is easy to produce an isolated sense. Krannert School of Management in the autumn and winter activities culminating in football and basketball, there are some skills exhibitions, charity balls, for all seasons Party and so on.

The Lafeyette may lack the people to see the captivating charm, but it is by no means a wilderness. Than to the northeast of the city in the Midwest Lafeyette is a friendship, pragmatic, warm place. Money the magazine in 1996 arranged in the top 300 most suitable place to live, it ranked 30. The community has its own orchestra, theater, and a nationally recognized art museum. Spring Fountain Art Fair, known as the Around-the-summer blue-grass and mountain musicians performing on the, Indiana Fiddler,'s Gathering, the fall of the grand Feast of the Hunter's Moon, attracting thousands of visitors.
Krannert School of Management - Graduate Employment:In 1996, there were 98 companies to the Krannert School of Management to recruit people over 72 in 1994 and 54 in 1992. In recent years, General Motors, enrolled 161 school graduates, IBM97, United Technologies96 name, Hewlett ─ P ackard, 86, Ford 82. It can be seen from this list U.S. businessmen Krannert is appreciated.

Tepper School Of Business

Carnegie Mellon University-Tepper School of Business:

Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is a has 8120 students and 3,800 faculty and research staff of well-known universities (August 23, 2003 data). The predecessor of Carnegie Mellon University - Carnegie Technical School is established in 1900 by the famous American industrialist and philanthropist - the King of Steel - Andrew Carnegie (Andrew at Carnegie) funded in Pittsburgh.
Mellon Institute of Industrial Research in 1913, founded by the Mellon family, is the first cooperative research companies. The founder of the Andrew Mellon. Resistant base and technical schools in 1912 was renamed the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1967 merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to become Carnegie Mellon University.
Recognized as the world's leading private universities, Carnegie Mellon University has seven colleges and research institutes, graduate studies: Carnegie Institute of Technology, Institute of Fine Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Industrial Management Institute, School of Computer Science, John Hydes Public Relations Institute.

Carnegie Mellon University have different disciplines, including cognitive psychology recognized by the state, management and public relations, writing and rhetoric, application history, philosophy and biological sciences. Computers, robots science, science, art and industrial management are universally recognized as a first-class professional. Computer professional, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University and the University of California, Bo Kelin Branch tied the nation's top spot, its Software Engineering Institute, U.S. Department of Defense Military Control Research Institute, ahead of other prestigious schools in the international software industry with a high reputation. Most common in the international software industry standard --- Capability Maturity Model for Software Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is the Software Engineering Institute developed the school and develop. Carnegie Mellon University on the basis of the original CMM system has introduced the latest CMMI system, the latest standard for the software industry.

Manufacturing units of Carnegie Mellon University, or NASA aerospace research tasks, one of the school's Robotics Institute, engaged in auto-drive car, the exploration of the moon walking robot, a single round of gyro rolling rover . The U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has been with Carnegie Mellon University National Robotics Engineering Association and Boeing signed a contract to manufacture and testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGCV) like cars. This will be the first human attempt to production in all terrain conditions are able to work unmanned ground combat vehicles. The University of space robot has a long history. At present, the "Gladiator" fighting robot developed by Carnegie Mellon University for the Pentagon in the victory against the test, the challenge to build the future of the U.S. "technical difficulties. The same time, Carnegie Mellon University is the world's largest, to participate in the largest number of robot soccer competition "RoboCup Robot Soccer World Cup, the main sponsor of one, is recognized as a pioneer robots used in education.

Carnegie Mellon University's Tepper School of Business Department of Business Administration students set up a comprehensive product development record class is one of the best teaching programs in the United States. In this class, designers, engineers and marketing staff gather together to jointly develop a product model of practical value, and commercial viability.

Management consulting firm DiamondCluster International, Inc. consultant Bill Eldredge, Bill Eldredge, Carnegie - Mellon University (Carnegie Mellon University) appreciates that business knowledge and professional skills of the MBA graduates can these two important quality blend, but without this pride, a pragmatic attitude, DiamondCluster International's corporate culture complement each other. But he is worried that the opportunity to recruit the best graduates here, after all, this is ranked third in two on the list of national institutions and international institutions are institutions.

Carnegie - Mellon University, Tepper School of Business (Tepper School of Business), fresh MBA graduates increased from two years ago, close to 500 dropped to 315 people. College, on the one hand, this period less the number of people applying for admission, on the other hand, the College also hopes to control enrollment, student - faculty ratio is more reasonable, and reduce the burden of teaching facilities.

Tepper School of Business Website Address:

Carbon Trade

Carbon trade-What is carbon trading?

"Carbon trading" refers to the Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gas carbon dioxide emissions trading.
Carbon trading is a market mechanism to promote global greenhouse gas emissions to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions. Through the difficult negotiations the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, May 9, 1992 by the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, referred to as "the Convention"). Convention an additional protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan in December 1997, the "Kyoto Protocol" (referred to as "the Protocol"). "Protocol") to the market mechanism as a new path to solve the problem of reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide as the representative of that of carbon dioxide emissions as a commodity, to form carbon dioxide emissions trading, referred to as carbon trading.
The basic principle of carbon trading is a party to the contract by paying the other to obtain the amount of greenhouse gas emission reduction, the buyer can be purchased emission credits used to slow the greenhouse effect in order to achieve their emission reduction goals. Six kinds of greenhouse gas emission reduction, carbon dioxide (CO2) is the largest such transactions as the unit of per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e), so commonly called "carbon trading". Its market is called carbon markets (Carbon Market).
In the constituent elements of the carbon market, the rule is the first and most important core elements. Some rules mandatory, such as the "Protocol" is the most important one of the mandatory rules of the carbon market, the Protocol provides for quantified emission reduction targets of the Convention, Annex I countries (developed countries and economies in transition); that its greenhouse gas emissions between 2008 and 2012 an average reduction of 5.2% on 1990 levels. Other rules derived from the Protocol, such as the Protocol provides for collective emission reduction targets in the EU in 2012 to 8% lower than the 1990 emission levels, the European Union from redistribution to Member States and the European Union was set up in 2005 Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS), established trading rules. Of course, some rules are voluntary, and no international, national policy or law enforcement constraints, regional, corporate or individual voluntary initiated its environmental responsibilities.
Kyoto Protocol came into effect in 2005, the global carbon trading market has had explosive growth. Carbon trading in 2007 from 1.6 billion tons in 2006 jumped to 2.7 billion tons, up 68.75 percent. Turnover growth of more rapidly. 2007 global carbon trading market price value of 40 billion euros, an increase of 81.8% more than 22 billion euros in 2006, global carbon trading market value even in the first half of 2008 with 2007 as a whole was flat.
After years of development, carbon trading market matures, the participating countries the geographical scope of expanding the market structure to a multi-level deepening and financial complexity is quite different. According to the United Nations and the World Bank predicted that the global carbon trading in the 2008-2012 period, the size of the market each year up to $ 60 billion 2012 global carbon trading market capacity of $ 150 billion, is expected to exceed the oil market has become the world's largest market. To look beyond this, the international carbon trading system in 2012 and to be expected. Carbon trading to become the world's largest number of goods is irresistible, while the carbon trading price of the subject of money to bind the right and the monetary functions derived will break the unilateral U.S. hegemony prompted the International Monetary pattern diversification impact.

The root causes of the carbon trading
From an economic point of view, carbon trading followed the Coase theorem, the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide as the representative of the management and governance of greenhouse gases will cause cost differences; daily exchange of commodities can be seen as a right ( property rights) to exchange, then the greenhouse gas emissions can also be exchanged; a result, with the carbon trading has become the most efficient way to solve the pollution problem under the framework of market economy. In this way, carbon trading, climate change, the scientific problem, to reduce carbon emissions, this technology issues and sustainable development, economic issues closely combine market mechanisms to solve the scientific, technical, economic problems. It should be noted that carbon trading is essentially a financial activity, compared with the general financial activities, it is more closely connected to financial capital and the real economy based on green technology: on the one hand the financial capital directly or indirectly invest in the creation of carbon assets projects and enterprises; the other hand, from different projects and enterprises to produce emission reductions into carbon financial market transactions, have been developed into the standard financial instruments.
Under the premise of the rational capacity of the environment, politicians have arbitrarily defined the behavior of the greenhouse gas emissions, including carbon dioxide, is subject to restrictions, the resulting carbon emissions and emission reduction credits (credit) to start scarce, and become a The price of products, called carbon assets. The promoters of carbon assets, the 100 member states of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate "and the Kyoto Protocol signatory countries. Gradually scarce assets under the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol developed and developing countries of common but differentiated responsibility premise, the flow possible. Developed countries have the responsibility for emissions reductions, while developing countries do not, the resulting carbon assets in the distribution of the world. On the other hand, the reduction in real terms energy, high energy utilization efficiency of the developed countries, energy structure optimization, new energy technologies are widely adopted, so the country further reductions to the cost of high difficulty. Developing countries, energy efficiency, emission reduction, cost is also low. This leads to the same emission reduction units between the different countries there are different costs, the formation of the high price differential. Developed countries in great demand, supply capacity in developing countries, resulting international carbon trading market.

The legal basis for carbon trading
1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (also known as the "Earth Summit"), 155 countries have signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate "(The United Nations Framework, Convention on Climate Change, UNFCCC), this Department of the Clean Development mechanism (the Clean Development Mechanism, CDM), the root the parent.
1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Third Meeting of States Parties, through the legally binding Kyoto Protocol; Article 12 10 text "to identify a clean development mechanism".
Seventh Meeting of States Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 2001, through the implementation of the decision document of the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, known as the "Marrakech file, including:
The first decision 15/CP.7 number, the Kyoto Protocol, the principles, nature and scope of the Article, Article 12 and Article 17 provides that mechanism.
The first 16/Cp.7 decision the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, Article 6 of the
Decision 17/CP.7, the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol clean development mechanism as defined in Article 12 of the modalities and procedures ".
The first 18/Cp.7 decision Kyoto Protocol Article 17 of the modalities, rules and guidelines for emissions trading.
Carbon trading mainly based on legal documents.

Three mechanisms of carbon trading
In order to achieve the ultimate goal of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate global greenhouse gas emissions, the aforementioned legal framework convention of the three emission reduction mechanisms:
The clean development mechanism (Clean Development the Mechanism, CDM)
JI (Joint Implementation, JI)
Emissions Trading Scheme (Emissions Trade, ET)
These three are allowed between states of the United Nations Climate Change Framework Convention, the transfer of emission reduction units, or to obtain, but the specific rules and the role of different
Kyoto Protocol Article 12 specification "clean development mechanism" between Annex I countries (developed countries and countries in transition) and non-Annex I countries registration at the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM Registry) emission reduction units for sale. Are designed for non-Annex I countries to cut emissions, and benefit from the precondition for sustainable development; to assist Annex I countries through the clean development mechanism project activities "emission reduction warrants" (Certified Emmissions Reduction, CERs, dedicated in the clean development mechanism), in order to reduce the cost of fulfillment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate commitment. Detailed provisions of the Clean Development Mechanism in decision 17/CP.7, the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol clean development mechanism as defined in Article 12 of the modalities and procedures ".
"Kyoto Protocol" specification in the sixth article "Joint Implementation", Department of Annex I countries under the supervision of the Supervisory Committee Supervisory Committee, the certification and transfer of emission reduction units or access to, use of emission reduction units for the Emission Reduction Unit Emission Reduction Unit (ERUs). Joint Implementation of the detailed provisions in the first 16/Cp.7 decision, "the implementation of Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol Guide".
The Kyoto Protocol Article 17 specification "emissions trading", it is between the National Registration Department (National the Registry) in Annex I countries, to include "emission reduction unit" warrant "of emission reductions," assigned amount units "(Assigned the Amount Unit, AAUs), certified the transfer of emission reduction units RMUs (Removal Unit, RMUs) or acquired. "Emissions trading" provisions in decision 18/CP.7, the Kyoto Protocol Article 17 of the modalities, rules and guidelines for emissions trading.

Patterns of carbon trading
According to the three mechanisms of carbon trading, carbon trading has been divided into two types:
Quota transactions (Allowance-based transactions): refers to the total quantity control of emission reduction units generated by the transaction, such as the European Union EU emissions trading system, "EU emissions allowances (European Union Allowances, EUAs with) transactions is The Kyoto Protocol emission reduction between countries over emission reductions transactions, usually spot trading.
Project transaction (the Project-based transactions): the trading of emission reduction units generated by emission reduction projects, such as emissions reduction warrants "under the Clean Development Mechanism, Joint Implementation, emissions reduction units", emission reductions resulting from emission reduction plan through the state-to-state cooperation in trading, usually pre-trading futures.

Carbon trading market
March 2009, a total of four carbon exchange in the world:
European Union EU emissions trading system (European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme, EU ETS)
The United Kingdom and the emissions trading system (UK Emissions Trading Group, ETG)
Chicago Climate Exchange (the Chicago the Climate Exchange, and CCX)
National Trust of Australia (the National Trust, of Australia, NSW), Australia
The United States and Australia are not members of the Kyoto Protocol, the EU emissions trading system and the UK emissions trading system of international exchange, the two exchanges in the United States and Australia is only symbolic significance.

Carbon trading and low-carbon economy
Low-carbon economy based on low energy consumption, low pollution, low-emission-based economic model, another major advancement of human society following agricultural civilization and industrial civilization. Its essence is to improve energy efficiency, development of clean energy technologies, optimizing industrial structure, fundamentally changed the concept of human survival and development.
"Low-carbon economy" was first seen in the government documents in the 2003 UK Energy White Paper "for our energy future: creating a low carbon economy", and then get the strong support of the United Nations. In July 2007, the U.S. Senate proposed a "Low Carbon Economy Act, show that the path of development of low-carbon economy will become an important strategic choice for America's future. Obama came to power, clean energy economy as the revitalization of the U.S. economy, an important means to enhance American leadership. In June 2009, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the 2009 U.S. Clean Energy and Security Act ", the core of the bill there are two: First, to develop clean energy technologies to reduce dependence on fossil fuels; second is to establish greenhouse gas emissions trading system, the development of new carbon finance market, comparable to the size of the market with the oil futures market.
Carbon trading is the only way to use market mechanisms to lead the development of low-carbon economy. Low-carbon economy through technological innovation and optimization of transformation of the real economy will eventually have to reduce dependence on fossil fuels, reduce greenhouse gas emission levels. But historical experience has shown that, without the introduction of market mechanisms, only through voluntary or mandatory behavior of businesses and individuals are unable to reach emission reduction targets. The carbon market starting from the level of capital greenhouse gas emissions are defined by dividing the environmental capacity, an extension of the carbon asset of this new type of capital. Carbon trading climate change factors had been free in the balance sheet included in the balance sheet, changing the company's revenue and expenditure structure. Pricing and distribution of the presence of the carbon trading market, compared with carbon assets to create the conditions. Essentially, carbon trading is a financial activity, compared with the general financial activities, it is more closely connected to financial capital and the real economy based on green technology: on the one hand the financial capital directly or indirectly invest in projects to create carbon assets and enterprises; from the emission reductions generated by the different projects and enterprises to enter the carbon finance market transactions, have been developed into the standard financial instruments. Carbon trading to financial capital and the real economy, China Unicom to guide the development of the real economy, through the power of financial capital. This is the organic integration of the virtual economy and real economy, and represents the future direction of development of world economy.

International Settlements

International Settlements-What is the international settlement?

Overview of International Settlements,

For International Settlements (BIS) - definition: the behavior of the monetary settlement of international credit and debt. Mainly due to produce international credit and debt, visible and invisible trade class. The visible trade for International Settlements (BIS) for international trade settlement. For International Settlements (BIS) is caused by the invisible trade, international trade settlement.

For International Settlements (BIS) and domestic settlement of differences:

(1) the scope of activities of the currency is different from the domestic settlement within a country for International Settlements transnational.

(2) use different currency, the domestic balance sheet using the same currency, the international settlement using a different currency.

(3) follow the law, the former follow the same laws, which follow the international practice or prior agreement of the parties, the Arbitration Law.

International settlement system
Definition: International Settlements, the principles and norms of behavior.
According to the settlement currency is freely convertible, can be divided into the following three categories:
(1) freedom of multilateral international settlement system to use a freely convertible currency features.
(2) The bilateral international settlement system of the control characteristics can not freely convertible currency.
(3) internal multilateral settlement system of regional economic groupings.

The evolution of International Settlements (BIS)
Gone through three stages from the system side,
(1) cash settlement in the early trade.
(2) Non-bills clearing stage of development by the notes to the Notes documents settlement.
(3) banks and other financial structures involved in non-cash settlement.
Technology, international settlement means the continuous development of the main clearing and settlement systems: free collection and payment system of the BIS, BIS automatically receipt and payment system in the UK.

For International Settlements (BIS) of payment instruments
(A) the use of payment instruments, notes, bills issued by the drawer has unconditionally agreed to pay a certain amount or ask other people, can be transferred in writing to pay the endorsed certificate. The bills generally include bills of exchange, promissory notes, checks.
A bill of exchange is the main payment instruments for International Settlements (BIS) is one person to another person issued requiring him to pay a certain amount of unconditional payment order in writing, a person or bearer at sight or at a certain time in the future. The bill of exchange nature of the claims creditors to provide credit certificate. Its circulation after the vote, endorsement, tips, acceptance, payment and other statutory procedures have been dishonored, may exercise the right of recourse.
A bill may be divided into four categories:
(1) The drawer can be divided into bank bills and commercial bills. Bank drawer and the payer are banks, commercial bills of exchange issued by businesses or individuals.
(2) can be divided into the time of payment of a sight draft and time draft. Demand draft payable at sight or when prompted. The long-term bill is a bill payable by a specific deadline or specific date.
(3) whether the attached documents are divided into light ticket with a single bill. Light ticket is not attached to the documents attached to shipping documents with a single bill.
(4) according to the acceptor divided into bankers' acceptances and commercial acceptance bill, the former is a draft long-term acceptance by the Bank, which is a long-term bills of exchange for acceptance by businesses or individuals.
(2) the promissory note to guarantee issued by a person to another person in sight or at a certain time unconditional payment to the payee or the holder a written certificate of a certain balance. Parties as long as the drawer and the payee.
(3) A check is a depositor on the authorization issued by the bank at sight of a person or a nominated person or the holder of the spot unconditional payment of the balance of payment order in writing.
(B) the settlement documents, divided into the basic documents and ancillary documents
The basic documents refers to the export orientation of the importer to provide documents, commercial invoice, transport document, insurance document.
Two subsidiary documents the exporter to comply with government regulations of the importing Party or other long-term special documents.

International Flow Of Technology

International Flow Of Technology-What is the international flow of technology?

The international flow of technology is the transfer of technology in the international community. Flow and transfer of technology between countries or regions have a long history, such as China, Egypt, India and Babylon, the ancient civilizations of the many technological inventions spread to the West is proof. However, the modern international flow of technology, mainly developed after World War II, especially the past three decades has been developing rapidly.

The type of international technology flows

The international flow of technology and transfer of commercial and noncommercial two kinds:

Non-commercial transfer of technology mainly refers to the intergovernmental exchange of visits between the free aid, and economic organizations or individuals investigated, lectures, intelligence and information exchange activities of technology transfer. This technology transfer is gratuitous, and is also limited.

Commercial technology transfer, in accordance with international commodity transactions between the government or private enterprise, signed a contract for the sale of technology, paid to achieve technology transfer.

The causes of the international flow of technology

The flow of international to the following factors:

First of all, science and technology become relatively independent factors of production, plays a decisive role in the development of productive forces, which prompted the technology to become the important factor of production into the market.

Secondly, the rapid development of production and the internationalization of capital, the world, increasing emphasis on international technology exchange and to strengthen joint development, which promote the flow of technology on the basis of mutual benefit.

Once again, science and technology development imbalance between the countries in the world, technologically advanced countries tend to use the technological gap between its comparative advantages and in different countries, technology transfer out of their own is about to be eliminated, to seek new economic interests.

Finally, the multinational's global business activities, and promote technology to the constant expansion of international liquidity.

New development of the international flow of technology:
First, the increasing scale of international technology flows. At present, the amount of international technology flows accounted for about 1/3 of the world total commodity flows.
Secondly, the international technology flows faster than the flow rate of the other factors of production.
Third, the international flow of technology to further the movement of goods combined.
Fourth, the international technology flows, and capital flows, combined with international direct investment activity is always accompanied by the international transfer of technology.
Fifth, the proportion of software technology in the flow of technology is growing rapidly.
Sixth, the monopoly of the international flow of technology to be further strengthened. Technologically advanced countries in order to keep themselves in a good position in the flow of technology, they are inevitable monopoly of advanced technology. More than 80% of the international flow of technology between developed countries, they require all sorts of restrictive clauses, to hinder the participation of developing countries in the international flow of technology.

International Multimodal Transport

International Multimodal Transport-What is the international multimodal transport?

International multimodal transport is a location to another and the territory under the multimodal transport contract, at least two different modes of transport, multimodal transport operator, the goods from the territory of a country to take over the goods to specify the location of delivery of the goodsmodes of transport.

Multimodal transport operator (the Combined Transport Operator-CTO), refers to any person of his own or through their representatives, the multimodal transport contract. He bears the responsibility for the performance of the multimodal transport contract.

The difference between the international multimodal transport and international transport of goods:
Very few international multimodal transport by an operator to assume all transportation. Often told the commission of the shippers, intermodal operators to handle part of the carriage work, while the rest of the transport work commissioned other carrier. But this is different from the single mode of transport for those receiving the multimodal transport operator shall be responsible to transfer the care of the carrier, only in accordance with the contract of carriage, the relationship between the CTO is responsible for any business relationship with shippers. Therefore, the multimodal transport operator is the actual carrier, but "NVOCC (Non-Vessel Operating Carrier, referred to as the NVOC). International multimodal transport general international transport of goods at different points in the following areas:
(1) the content and production methods of shipping documents.
International multimodal transport for most of the "door to door" transport of goods shipment or loading or installed by the actual carrier issuing the bill of lading or waybill issued by the multimodal transport operator, the multimodal transport bill of lading, which is multi-modal intermodal with a single international shipping method is fundamentally different. In this case, the bill of lading or waybill shipper should be multimodal transport operator, consignee and notify party should normally be foreign affiliates of the multimodal transport operator or its agent; multimodal transport bill of lading the consignee and the consignor is a real, actual shipper and consignee, notify party is the port of destination or the final delivery location of the consignee or the agent of the consignee.
Unless otherwise specified port of loading on the multimodal transport bill of lading, port of discharge, but also sets out the receipt, the name of the place of delivery or final destination, as well as the name of the first leg of means of transport, cruises or trips, etc.
(2) the applicability of the multimodal transport bill of lading, and the transferability of general maritime bills of lading.
Only the general maritime bills of lading for sea, from this sense, the multimodal transport bill of lading only applies when combined in the maritime and other modes of transportation, but now it also applies to the outside of the shipping of two or more different modes of transport continuity of cross-border transport (foreign international multimodal transport document "can avoid conceptual confusion).
Multimodal transport bill of lading to the non-negotiable waybill transferability of the ocean bill of lading and other transport mode one, the multimodal transport operator, the issue of transfer may also be issued non-transferable, according to the requirements of the shipper can intermodal bill of lading. In the former case, the consignee column should be used to order; the latter case, the consignee column should specify the name of the consignee, and non-negotiable bill of lading.
(3) the terms of the letter of credit.
Under the terms of the multimodal transportation needs, the letter of credit shall have the following three-point changes:
(1) to the bank for negotiation can not be used to clean on board bill of lading issued by shipping companies and multimodal transport bill of lading should be issued by the multimodal transport operator, and should also indicate the bill of lading the rise of production, in order to clear the possibility of transfer.
The ② multimodal transport container transport in general (except in exceptional circumstances, such as machinery and equipment shipped overseas project contracting is not necessarily used containers), and therefore should increase in the credit designated by the terms of the container transport.
③ such as banks help turn single, changed directly by the shipper or consignor or multimodal transport operator to send the single to the consignee or agent as soon as possible to obtain the shipping documents, to speed up the delivery of the goods in the port of destination (land), should add in the credit and shipping documents directly by the consignor or by the multimodal transport operator to send the terms of the consignee or his agent ". By the multimodal transport operator to send a single shipper out of the need for negotiation of settlement by the multimodal transport operator, issue a receipt of shipping documents have been sent "to prove.
(4) the procedures of customs clearance.
Most of the place of delivery of general international transport of goods at the loading port, destination mostly in the port of discharge, and thus handle the formalities of customs declaration and clearance goods enter or leave the port. Departure of international multimodal transport of goods, mostly in the inland cities, inland customs of goods for transit control procedures, examined and released by the Customs of exit. The final destination of the imported goods such as the inland cities, the Customs General of the entry port inspection and regulatory procedures for transit until the goods arrive at the final destination by the local customs inspection release.

International multimodal transport characteristics:
1, the international multimodal transport under the multimodal transport contract. International multimodal transport contract is entered into by the multimodal transport operator and the consignor and the multimodal transport conditions of the contract of carriage. The contract is proof of the multimodal transport document issued by the multimodal transport operator, compensation, contract and do not contract.
International multimodal transport of goods containerized cargo or containerized goods. General as the basic unit of transport container during transport. Containerized cargo to promote the development of international multimodal transport, modern container transport since they arise from the multimodal transport closely linked to international multimodal transport has a high efficiency of container transport, high-quality, high technology, high input and systemic characteristics.
(3) at least two or more different modes of transport, international transport of goods in international multimodal transport the entire transport.
4, the international multimodal transport is one vote in the end, the implementation of the full single rate of transport. Consignor only apply for one consignment, time dollars to pay the freight, an insurance can be achieved by a transport document, the whole coherent transport the shipment to destination. Therefore, it has the characteristics of the simplification and harmonization.
5, the international multimodal transport is the umbrella organization of the different modes of transport. During transport, whether it involves divided into how many sections to the kinds of modes of transport, international multimodal transport is completed by the multimodal transport operator or organizations, international multimodal transport operator responsible for the entire transport. From the place of departure to take over the goods, delivered at the final destination of goods and the entire transport of each section the convergence of work and related services business, a branch or agent in different countries or regions by the international multimodal transport operator.
6, the international multimodal transport operator by the choice of goods transportation routes, modes of transport, the transport section of the divided and each section of the actual carrier selection to reduce transportation costs, and improve the speed of transportation, to achieve the purpose of reasonable transportation.

International multimodal transport should have the condition:
International multimodal transport shall meet the following conditions:
(1) The multimodal transport operator and the shipper must be signed between the multimodal transport contract, clearly bearing the care of the rights, obligations and immunities relationship. Multimodal transport contract is the fundamental basis for determining the multimodal transport nature, but also the difference between the main basis of the multimodal transport and general intermodal.
(2) must use the full multimodal transport document (MultimodalTransportDocuments, M.T.D · China is now used C.T.B / L). If the document is both a document of title, but also securities.
(3) must be a full single tariff. This tariff is a charge, including transportation costs (the sum of the transport fees), management fees and a reasonable profit.
(4) overall responsibility must be a multimodal transport operator for the entire transport. He is a multimodal transport contract was signed with the shipper party, but also issue a multimodal transport document or a multimodal transport bill of lading, he assumed the acceptance of the goods until delivery of the goods during the entire transport responsibility.
(5) must be coherent transport of two or more different modes of transport. Transport such as sea / sea, iron / iron, and air / air transport, for two-way, but still belongs to multimodal transport, which is an important difference in the intermodal and multimodal transport. At the same time, in a single mode of transport for short-distance car shuttle does not belong to the multimodal transport.
(6) must be the international transport of goods across borders. This is the difference between domestic transport and international transport restrictions.

International multimodal transport program:
, To accept the consignment applications for multimodal transport contract
Multimodal transport operator checked the application and transport routes proposed by the shippers, the judgment whether or not to accept applications for the consignment, the consignor or his agent reached under the two sides the transfer of goods, time, location, payment method, etc. agreement and fill in the receipt of the station, and sent to the multimodal transport operator are numbered, multimodal transport operator, the number left after the consignment of goods linked to the other joint returned to the consignor or his agent.
2, the issuance of empty containers, extraction and transportation
Container used in intermodal transport is generally provided by the multimodal transport operator, the source of these containers, there are three possible situations: one is the multimodal transport operator to the purchase of container used, the rental company to borrow box container, three the entire transport in a partial shipments, mutual agreement by the consignor own packing, the multimodal transport operator shall issue a the suitcase bill or leasing companies or Waybill issued by the suitcase handed to the consignor or its agent, by the specified date to the specified depot for their own empty container hauling to the packing of goods location, ready to load.
3, the export declaration
If the multimodal transport from the port, just in the port declaration; from inland areas, it should be in the nearby inland customs offices for customs export declaration matters are generally handled by the consignor or his agent can also be commissioned by the multimodal transport operator people to handle the customs station receipts, packing lists, export licenses and other relevant documents and files should be provided.
4, the packing of goods and acceptance of goods
If the consignor own packing, consignor or his agent to extract the empty phase in their own factories and warehouses organizations packing, packing work generally after the declaration of Customs staff to supervise the installation of the stuffing location and handling of sealed matters For the tally, should be invited to the the tallymen site tally with co-production of packing list.
For self-packing of the FCL by the owner, the consignor shall be responsible for the goods to the place stipulated by the agreement, the multimodal transport operator or his representative at the designated locations to receive the goods, if the LCL, from multi-modal CTO in the specified freight station to receive the goods after acceptance of goods, on behalf of the multimodal transport operator to receive the goods should be present at the station on the original receipt signature and deliver to the consignor or his agent.
5, booking and arrangements for the transportation of goods
After the conclusion of the contract, the multimodal transport operator shall immediately formulate the contract involved in containerized cargo transport plan, the plan should include cargo transportation routes, the division of the section, each section of the actual carrier selection and to determine the interval of convergence location arrival, departure time.
Here referred to booking refers to the multimodal transport operator to be arranged in accordance with the transportation plan consistent set of each section means of transport, and selected the actual partial shipments contract carrier to enter into each section of these contracts entered into by the multi-modal CTO himself or commissioned agents to deal with the actual carrier of the previous section may also be requested as the back section of the actual carrier booking.
Cargo transport plan arrangements must be scientific and leeway, should contact each other work, adjusted according to actual situation and plan to avoid each other out of touch.
6, the insurance
Consignor should insure the cargo insurance, the insurance is handled by the consignor, or the costs borne by the consignor and by the multimodal transport operator to handle the cargo insurance to the full insured, can also be sub- segment insurance, cargo liability insurance and container insurance in the multimodal transport operator, should be insured, by the multimodal transport operator or their agents to insurance companies or other forms of handling.
7, the issue of multimodal transport bill of lading, the organization completed the entire transportation of goods
Representatives of the multimodal transport operator to receive the goods, multimodal transport operator, the consignor should be the issue of multimodal transport bill of lading before the bill of lading to the consignor should be noted that according to agreed payment method and content, the number of payment of all fees payable to the consignor.
Multimodal transport operator has the responsibility and obligation to complete and organizations to complete the entire transport, organization of each section after the cargo has been accepted, the actual carrier, the dispatched institutions and representatives of the coordination to complete the transport of each section of each section in full interface between work and do a variety of services and transport documents, documents and information about the organization and coordination involved in the transport process.
Customs business in the transport process
The entire transport of the convention, the international multimodal transport shall be deemed to international transport of goods, so the links work, including customs clearance of cargo and container importing countries, imports of domestic land segment bonded transport procedures and customs clearance, etc., if the land transport by other national customs and inland transport routes should also include the procedures of customs clearance and bonded transportation.
If the goods in the purpose of the port of delivery, customs clearance in the port of the local Customs, if including land delivery, the bonded transportation procedures should be handled in the port to inland destinations before customs sealed, and then handled in the inland customs clearance formalities.
9, the goods pay
When the cargo to the destination by the destination agent to notify the consignee delivery, the consignee is regulated by the multimodal transport delivery, the multimodal transport operator or his agent basis having the contract, to charge the full cost payable by the consignee, to recover the issuance of the bill of lading bill of lading, delivery bill of lading to the designated yard and pick up the goods.
If FCL delivery, the consignee to be responsible for the transport of dig box location, and took out the goods after the containers shipped back to the specified yard, at this time, transportation, contract termination.
10 Freight Transport Accident
If the entire transport cargo loss, damage and delay in transit, regardless of whether they can determine the section of the damage occurred, hair (close) the goods may apply to the multimodal transport operator to claim the multimodal transport operator, in accordance with the bill of lading terms and both sides agreement to establish responsibilities and compensation, such as to determine the accident sections and those responsible for its further claims if they can not determine the accident section, generally occur in the maritime segment, if you have cargo and liability insurance exists to require the insurance company paid and further recourse to the insurance company, if the damage and the responsible person can not reach agreement, you will need to resolve the litigation and arbitration within the limitation of actions.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

World Sea Ports

World Sea Ports-World shipping port table:

World Sea Ports/World shipping port table-A:

Aalborg Aalborg (Denmark)

Aalesund Aalesund (Norway)

Aarhus Aarhus (Denmark)

Abadan Abadan (Iran)

Abidjan Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (UAE)

Acajutla Acajutla (El Salvador)

Acapulco Acapulco (Mexico)

Accra Accra (Ghana)

Adelaide Adelaide (Australia)

Aden Aden (Yemen)

Agana Agana (Guam)

Alexandria Alexandria (Egypt)

Algiers Algiers (Algeria)

Amsterdam Amsterdam (Netherlands)

Ancona Ancona (Italy)

Annaba Annaba (Algeria)

Antofagasta Antofagasta (Chile)

Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium)

Aomen [Macao Macau (China)

Apapa Apapa (Nigeria)

Apia Apia (Western Samoa)

Of Aqaba Akaba] Aqaba (Jordan)

Arica Arica (Chile)

Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (Russia)

Aseb [Assab, Assab (Ethiopia)

Athens (Greece)

The Aukland Auckland (New Zealand)

Avenmouth Effendi Kramers (UK)

World Sea Ports-B

Bahia Blanka Blanca (Argentina)

Baltimore Baltimore (USA)

Bandar Abbas Bandar Abbas (Iran)

Bandar Khomeini, Khomeini Port (Iran)

Bandar Seri Begawan Bandar Seri Begawan (text)

Bangkok (Thailand)

Banjarmaisn Banjarmasin (Indonesia)

Banjul Banjul (Gambia)

Bar Bar (Yugoslavia)

The Barcelona Ba Saluo that (Spain)

Barranquilla Barranquilla (Colombia)

Basra Basra (Iraq)

Bassein Bassein (Burma)

Bata to the tower (Equatorial Guinea)

Beihai Beihai (China)

Beira Beira (Mozambique)

Beirut Beirut (Lebanon)

Belawan Belawan (Indonesia)

Belfast Belfast (United Kingdom)

Belize Belize (Belize)

Belmopan Belmopan (Belize)

Benghazi Benghazi (Libya)

Berbera Berbera (Somalia)

Bergen Bergen (Norway)

Berne Berne (Switzerland)

Bilbao Bilbao (Spain)

Birkenhead Birkenhead (UK)

Bissau in Bissau (Guinea Bissau)

Bizerta Bizerte (Tunisia)

Boma Boma (Zaire)

Bombay Mumbai (India)

Bordeaux Bordeaux (France)

Boston Boston (USA)

Bourgas Bourgas (Bulgaria)

Bremen Bremen (Germany)

Bremerhaven Bremerhaven (France)

Brest Brest (France)

Brisbane Brisbane (Australia)

Bristol Bristol (UK)

Buenaventura Buenaventura (Colombia)

Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

World Sea Ports-C

Cagliari Cagliari (Italy)

Calcutta Calcutta (India)

Callao Callao (Peru)

Cape Town Cape Town (South Africa)

Caracas Caracas (Committee Ruinei La)

Cardiff Cardiff (UK)

Cartagena Kahe Na (Colombia)

The Casablanca [Dar el Beida, Casablanca (Morocco)

Cebu Cebu (Philippines)

Charleston Charleston (USA)

Cheribon well in (Indonesia)

Chiba Chiba (Japan)

Chicago of Chicago (USA)

Chimbote Chimbote (Peru)

Chittagong Chittagong (Bangladesh)

Chongjin Chongjin (North Korea)

Coatzacoalcos boast Review boast Erke Si (Mexico)

Colombo Colombo (Sri Lanka)

Colon Colon (Panama)

Conakry Conakry (Guinea)

Coonstantza Constanta (Romania)

The la Conuna La Coruna (Spain)

The Copehagen Copenhagen (Denmark)

Corinto Corinto (Nicaragua)

Cork (Ireland)

Cotonou Cotonou (Benin)

christ the Church Claes Teqie odd (New Zealand)

Crotone Crotone within (Italy)

Cumana Cumana (Venezuela)

[Edit] D

Dacca Dhaka (Bangladesh)

Dakar Dakar (Senegal)

Dalian Dalian (China)

Damman Dammam (Saudi Arabia)

Da Nang Da Nang (Vietnam)

Dar el-Beida, the Casablanca] Casablanca (Morocco)

Darwin Darwin (Australia)

Dar-es-Salaam Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)

The Djakarta Jakarta (Indonesia)

Djibouti Djibouti (Djibouti)

Doha Doha (Qatar)

Dordrecht Dordrecht (Netherlands)

Douala Douala (Cameroon)

Dubai Dubai (UAE)

Dublin Dublin (Ireland)

Dunedin to play Nitin (New Zealand)

Dunkirk Dunkirk (United Kingdom)

Durresi Durres (Albania)


East London East London (South Africa)


Fredericia Fredericia (Denmark)

Fredrikstad Fredrikstad (Norway)

Free Town, Freetown (Sierra Leone)

Freemantle Fremantle (Australia)

Fuzhou Fuzhou (China)


The Gaoxiong Kaohsiung (China)

Gdansk Gdansk (Poland)

Gdynia Gdynia (Poland)

Geelong Geelong (Australia)

Genoa Genoa (Italy)

Georgetown [Penang George Town, Penang (Malaysia)

Georgetown Georgetown (Guyana, Canada)

Gibraltar Gibraltar (Spain)

Gijon Gijon (Spain)

Glasgow Glasgow (UK)

Godthab Godthab (Greenland)

Goteborg Goteborg (Sweden)

Guangzhou Guangzhou (China)

Guayaquil Guayaquil (Ecuador)

Guaymas Guaymas (Mexico)


Haifa Haifa (Israel)

Hai-Phong Haiphong (Vietnam)

Hakodate Hakodate (Japan)

Halifax Halifax (Canada)

Halmstad Halmstad (Sweden)

Hamburg (Germany)

Hanoi Hanoi (Vietnam)

Havana Havana (Cuba)

Helsinki Helsinki (Finland)

Hiroshima Hiroshima (Japan)

Hongay Hongji (Vietnam)

Hongkong Hong Kong (China)

Honolulu Honolulu (United States)

Houston Houston (USA)

Hudaydak of Al Holland Delta (Yemen)

Hull Hull (UK)

The Hungnam Singnan (North Korea)

World Sea Ports-I

Iloilo Iloilo Iloilo (Philippines)

Iquique Iquique (Chile)

Istanbul Istanbul (Turkey)

Izmir [the Smyrna Izmir (Turkey)


Jakarta Jakarta (Indonesia)

Jidda Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

The Jilong Keelung (China)


Kagoshima, Kagoshima (Japan)

Kakinada Kakinada (India)

-Kampong Saon Sihanoukville (Cambodia)

Karachi Karachi (Pakistan)

Khulna Khulna (Bangladesh)

Kiel Kiel (Germany)

Kingston Kingston (Jamaica, Canada)

The Kismayu Kismayo (Somalia)

Kobe Kobe (Japan)

Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

The Kuching Ji Jin (Malaysia)

Kuwait Kuwait (Kuwait)


Lagos Lagos (Nigeria)

The la Guaina La Guaira (Venezuela)

The la Rouchelle La Rochelle (France)

La Spezia, La Spezia (Italy)

La Plata, La Plata (Argentina)

Latakia Latakia (Syria)

Le Havre, Le Havre (France)

Leghorn [Livorno] Lai Geen (Italy)

Leninggrad Lenin leather Le (Russia)

Lianyungang Lianyungang (China)

Libreville Libreville (Gabon)

Limassol Limassol (Cyprus)

Mongolia where Limon (Costa Rica)

Lisboa [Lisbon Lisbon (Portugal)

Liverpool Liverpool (UK)

Lome Lome (Togo)

London (UK)

Long Beach, Long Beach (USA)

Los Angeles (USA)

Luanda Luanda (Angola)

Lubeck Luebeck (Germany)

Lyttelton Lyttelton (New Zealand)


Macao Macau (China)

Majunga Mahajanga (Madagascar)

The Makasa Makassar (Indonesia)

Malabo Malabo (Equatorial Guinea)

Malacca Malacca (Malaysia)

Malaga Malaga (Spain)

Male Male (Maldives)

Malindi Malindi (Kenya)

Malmo Malmo (Sweden)

Malta Malta (Malta)

Manama, Al Manama (Bahrain)

Manila Manila (Philippines)

Maputo Maputo (Mozambique)

Maracaibo Maracaibo (Committee Ruinei La)

Mariupol Mariupol (Ukraine)

Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina)

Marseilles Marseilles (France)

Massawa Massawa (Ethiopia)

Matadi Matadi (Zaire)

Matanzas Matanzas (Cuba)

Mazatlan Mazatlan (Mexico)

Melbourne Melbourne (Australia)

Menado Manado (Indonesia)

Mersin Mersin (Turkey)

Messina Messina (Italy)

Miami Miami (USA)

Milford Milford Haven (United Kingdom)

Mobile Mobile (USA)

Mogadisho [Mogadiscio] Mount leave Mogadishu (Somalia)

Mokpo Mokpo (Korea)

Mombasa Mombasa (Kenya)

Monrovia Monrovia (Liberia)

Montevideo Montevideo (Uruguay)

Montreal Montreal (Canada)

Mokalla, Al Mukalla (Yemen)

Moulmein Moulmein (Myanmar)

The Murmansk Moer Man Minsk (Russia)

Muscat Muscat (Oman)

World Sea Ports-N

Nagasaki Nagasaki (Japan)

Nagoya Nagoya (Japan)

Naha Naha (Japan)

Nakhodka Nakhodka (Russia)

Nampo Nampo (North Korea)

Nantes Nantes (France)

Naples [Napoli, Naples (Italy)

New Orleans New Orleans (USA)

New York New York (United States)

New Castle Newcastle (Australia, United States)

New Heaven "New Zealand Haven (USA)

Nicosia Nicosia (Cyprus)

Niigata, Niigata (Japan)

The Ningpo Ningbo (China)

Norfolk Norfolk (USA)

Nouakchott Nouakchott (Mauritania)

Noumea Noumea (New Caledonia)


Oakland Oakland (USA)

Odessa Odessa (Ukraine)

Oran [Ouakran, Oran (Algeria)

Osaka (Japan)

Oslo Oslo (Norway)

Oulu Oulu (Finland)

World Sea Ports/World shipping port table-P

Palembang Palembang (Indonesia)

Panama City Panama City (Panama)

Papeete Papeete (Polynesia)

Paramaribo Paramaribo (Suriname)

Penang Penang (Malaysia)

Philadelphia Philadelphia (USA)

Piraeus Piraeus (Greece)

The Plaia Praia (Cape Verde)

Ploce Ploce (Yugoslavia)

Plymouth Plevna Plymouth (UK)

The Pointe Noire Pointe Noire (Congo)

Port-au-Prince Port-au-Prince (Haiti)

Port Elizabeth Elizabeth Harbour (South Africa)

Port Gentil Port-Gentil (Gabon)

Port Harcourt Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

The Port Headland Port Hedland (Australia)

The Port Kelang Port Klang (Malaysia)

Portland Portland (United States)

Port Louis Port Louis (Mauritius)

Port Moresby Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea)

The Port Alegre, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

Port of Spain Port of Spain (Trinidad and Tobago)

Port Novo Boduonuofu (Benin)

Port Said Seko Port (Egypt)

Port Sudan Port Sudan (Sudan)

Port Victoria Victoria Harbour (Seychelles)

Portsmouth Portsmouth (UK)

Prince Rubert Rupert, Port-au-Prince (Canada)

Puerto Cabello Puerto Cabello (Venezuela)

Of Puerto Cortes, Cortes Hong Kong (Honduras)

Punta Arenas Punta Arenas (Chile)

Puntarenas Puntarenas (Costa Rica)

Pusan ​​Busan (South Korea)

World Sea Ports-Q

Qingdao Qingdao (China)

Qinhuangdao Qinhuangdao (China)

Quebec, Quebec (Canada)

World Sea Ports-R

Rabat Rabat (Morocco)

Rangoon Yangon (Myanmar)

Recife tired West Africa (Brazil)

Reykjavik Reykjavik (Iceland)

Riga Riga (Latvia)

Rijeka Rijeka (Yugoslavia)

Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

Rostock Rostock (Germany)

Rotterdam Rotterdam (Netherlands)

World Sea Ports/World shipping port table-S

Safaga Safaga Port (Egypt)

Safi the Bodhisattva fee (Morocco)

Saigon Saigon (Vietnam)

Salonica Salonica (Greece)

Salvador El Salvador (Brazil)

San Diego St. down Ge (USA)

San Francisco (USA)

San Juan San Juan (Puerto Rico, Peru)

Sandakan Sandakan (Malaysia)

Santiago Santiago (Cuba)

Santo Dominga Santo Domingo (Dominican)

Drag Santos Sang, Adams (Brazil)

Savanah Savannah (USA)

Seattle Seattle (USA)

The Semarang Sambo Gong (India)

Setubel Setubal (Portugal)

Sfax Sfax (Tunisia)

Shanghai Shanghai (China)

Shantou Shantou (China)

Shekou Shekou (China)

Shenzhen Shenzhen (China)

Singapore (Singapore)

Songkhla Songkhla (Thailand)

Southampton Southampton London (United Kingdom)

Split Split (Yugoslavia)

St.Johns St. John's (Canada)

Stockholm (Sweden)

Suez Suez (Egypt)

Surabaja Surabaya (Indonesia)

Suva Suva (Fiji)

Sydney (Australia)

Szczecin Szczecin (Poland)

World Sea Ports/World shipping port table-T

Taibei Taipei (China)

Tallin Tallinn (Estonia)

Tamatave [Toamasina, Tamatave (Madagascar)

Tampa Tampa (USA)

Tampico Tampico (Mexico)

Tandjung Priok the Tanjong not busy (Indonesia)

Tanga Tange (Tanzania)

Tangier Tangier (Morocco)

Taranto Taranto (Italy)

Tatus Tartus (Syria)

Tel Aviv Tel Aviv (Israel)

Tema Tema (Ghana)

Tianjin, Tianjin (China)

Toamasina Toamasina (Madagascar)

Tokyo Tokyo (Japan)

Toleary Tulaiyaer

Toronto (Canada)

Toulon Toulon Harbor (France)

Trieste Trieste (Italy)

Trineomalee Ting Ke Mali (Sri Lanka)

Tripoli Tripoli (Lebanon, Libya)

Tunis Tunis (Tunisia)

Turku, Turku (Finland)


Vaasa Vaasa (Finland)

Valletta Valletta (Malta)

The Valona Fa Luola (Albania)

Valparaiso Valparaiso (Chile)

Vancouver Vancouver (Canada)

Verna Varna (Bulgaria)

Venice Venice (Italy)

Veracruz in Veracruz (Mexico)

Victoria Victoria (Seychelles, Canada)

vila Port Vila (Vanuatu)

Vladivostok Vladivostok (Russia)


Valvis Bay, Walvis Bay (Namibia)

Wellington Wellington (New Zealand)

Wenzhou in Wenzhou (China)

Wismar Wismar (Germany)

Wonsan Wonsan (North Korea)


Xiamen [Amoy, Xiamen (China)


Yantai Yantai (China)

Yokohama Yokohama (Japan)


Zanzibar Zanzibar (Tanzania)

Zhanjiang Zhanjiang (China)

Zhuhai (China)